L’innovazione generata dagli utenti – meglio nota come user innovation – è una pratica sempre più diffusa sia nelle amministrazioni pubbliche sia nelle aziende private, ed è possibile rinvenirne numerosi esempi anche nel settore sanitario. L’intento del presente articolo è contribuire alla teoria sulla user innovation, con particolare riguardo alle motivazioni e agli stimoli che inducono gli utenti ad innovare, analizzando evidenze empiriche originali tratte dal settore sanitario Italiano. Nella prima parte del lavoro sono analizzati criticamente i diversi filoni di letteratura sviluppati attorno al concetto di user innovation. Nella seconda parte, è presentata e analizzata l’esperienza di pazienti affetti da malattie croniche e rare. I dati confermano l’importanza della user innovation e la prevalenza della motivazione altruistica su quella commerciale, da cui derivano implicazioni rilevanti per incentivare gli utenti. La collaborazione medico-paziente e i modelli di diffusione dell’innovazione emergono come elementi che influenzano in modo cruciale la piena realizzazione dei benefici, non solo individuali, legati alla user innovation in sanità.
User innovation is widespread in both private and public sectors and there is now abundant anecdotal evidence in health care. We review different literature streams developed around the concept and draw on original empirical evidence on patient innovation in rare and chronic diseases, aiming to further develop the theory on user innovation. The analysis of our survey data confirms the relevance of patient innovation in rare and chronic diseases and the prevalence of altruistic motivations driving patients’ efforts. Collaboration with physicians and patterns of innovation diffusion emerge as key aspects undermining the full realization of innovation benefits and the creation of public value.
Key words: Collaborative innovation, Patient innovation, Public Value
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