RIREA Special Issue 2019 – Call for paper 2018

E’ attivo il Call for paper 2018 “Integrated Thinking and Reporting in practice: challenges, opportunities, and future directions of research” della Rivista Italiana di Ragioneria e di Economia Aziendale/Italian Accounting Review.

I Guest Editors: Prof. Cristiano Busco (LUISS University, Rome & Roehampton University, London), Prof. Alessandro Lai (University of Verona), Prof. Chiara Mio (University of Venice), Prof. Angelo Riccaboni (University of Siena).


La scadenza per la presentazione dei contributi è il 30 settembre 2018.


RIREA Special Issue 2019 – Call for Paper 2018_1


6th International Conference of the Journal of International Accounting Research (JIAR)

La Sixth International Conference del Journal of International Accounting Research (JIAR) organizzata dal Dipartimento di Management dell’Università Ca’ Foscari di Venezia in collaborazione con l’American Accounting Association (International Accounting Section) si terrà presso l’Università Ca’ Foscari di Venezia nei giorni 28-30 giungo 2018.





Summer School Università di Bologna (Campus Forlì) “Management and reporting of non-financial aspects by organisations”

La Summer School ”Management and reporting of non-financial aspects by organisations” e il Doctoral Colloquium sul tema “Social and Environmental Accounting” si sono svolti nella settimana dal 25 al 29 giugno 2018 presso l’Università di Bologna (sede di Forlì).


Ulteriori informazioni sono disponibili al seguente link: https://eventi.unibo.it/summer-school-non-financial-reporting


Evoluzione e prospettive dei sistemi di informazione e di controllo

Evolution and perspectives of information and control systems

This special issue includes five articles, identified among the best papers presented at the session “ICT, sustainability, regulation and uncertainty: evolution and perspectives in information and control systems” of the XXXVIII Congress of Italian Academy of Business Administration and Management and two research works.

Nowadays, firms work in a very complex and dynamic environment, in which different forces interact, as new technologies, new ways to look at the future, new principles and values, new regulations influencing the traditional view of accounting and management information systems. In this environment, a key driver to reshape the above-mentioned systems is to identify new models able at describing firms’ complexity. According to the author, these concepts are “ecosystem” and “triple helices”. New ways to look at the role and activities of firms in the economic environment inevitably affect their information and control systems.

Keywords: accounting information systems, ecosystems, triple helics.


Sistemi di gestione e controllo e professionalizzazione delle imprese familiari. Uno strumento di accreditamento intraparentale?

Management control systems and family business professionalization. The pathway leading to successor’s seal of approval.

Within the family business field of research, professionalization and succession have strongly attracted the scholars’ attention. Both the processes entail crucial changes for family firms, whose outcomes are mysterious and sometimes differing from expectations. Though scholars have identified several relationships between these processes, the way in which succession and professionalization could evolve in the medium-long term has not been adequately investigated. In particular, it is not clear how the introduction of management control systems and the hiring of skilled non-family managers may be combined with the successor’s professionalization.

This paper builds on an Italian longitudinal case study analyzing the use of managerial systems and the introduction of professional managers during the intra-family succession. Results show that the successor’s seal of approval moves the introduction of managerial systems and the hiring of professional managers to the detriment of long-term survival and growth.

Keywords: Professionalization, Management Control Systems, Family business, Succession.


Carenze informative e vulnerabilità delle imprese giovani: il ruolo del business plan

Lack of information and vulnerability of young firms. The role of the business plan

Our previous research has highlighted that a very small number of Italian companies failed planned their activities and carried out the management control through instruments such as budget, reporting, cost analysis, etc. (Nicolò, 2011). The lack of information has likely contributed to the crisis and failure of these companies. About 1/3 of these failed companies were very young, as they had been established for less than ten years. As is well known, young firms are very vulnerable because they do not have a corporate reputation and, consequently, the bonds of trust with the stakeholders are very fragile. Young firms do not have a history that can demonstrate that they are able to keep their commitments to lenders, investors, suppliers, customers, strategic partners. At the first difficulties, these fragile bonds of trust often break down and companies collapse on themselves because of the lack of resources they need to survive (Nicolò 2015, Nicolò and Ferrara 2015, Nicolò 2017). Drawing up a business plan can mitigate the high level of vulnerability of young firms because it helps to prevent wrong decisions. Moreover, the business plan is the only tool that can be used to build quickly a corporate reputation analytically demonstrating to stakeholders that the company will be able to survive over time and to meet their interests and expectations.

Keywords: Start-ups, Corporate Reputation, Business Plan, Survival of Young Firms, Management Control Systems


Constructing servitization strategies. Accounting information in supporting NPD processes

In the last decades, a fruitful stream of research has paid attention to the servitization strategy analysing the role of accounting in supporting it. We deeply investigate the role of accounting information in verifying the validity of a servitization strategy. Drawing on the pragmatic constructivism, we identify the key elements of servitization strategy associated to possibilities, facts, and values that could contribute to transform new possibilities into factual possibilities. Focusing on New Product Development (NPD) processes, we aim to analyse the use of accounting information in managing two development projects. In particular, the accounting information, acting as a communication means can verify the validity of a company servitization strategy in order to complete the construction of that strategy.

We conducted an interpretive case-study at a division of a multinational, manufacturing company operating in the semiconductor industry. Case evidence showed how the revisions to the projects, suggested from accounting communications during the NPD phases, allowed a realignment of the two projects to the servitization strategy at the company level, which was validated with respect to the new devices.

Keywords: Servitization Strategy, New Product Development, Pragmatic Constructivism, Accounting Information Systems


“Mondo reale-tradizionale” e “mondo digitale”, strategie aziendali e web intelligence: il futuro del controllo e della gestione delle informazioni

The “real-traditional” world and the “digital” world, strategic management and web intelligence. The future of information management and control.

The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the web intelligence may influence the principal dimensions of strategic intelligence, improving the capacity to make right strategic moves. Specifically, the aim is to study the possibilities and the risks, with the related control needs, of using web data and web information in defining strategies in the real traditional world, and not only in defining web strategies. First of all, we advanced a framework  and, then, the research was completed with specific interviews to managers of leader companies in the field of managing information and data. The study shows how “big data” may contain “rich data” and “deep data” and how the digital world may represent the “real traditional world”. Indeed, the study highlightsthe relationship, and maybe also the futures of the relationship, between the “digital world” and the strategic management.

Keywords: strategy, web, intelligence, big data, digitization, information system.


A Roadmap for Performance Measurement in Smarter Universities

The university modernization process has introduced a new concept of such institutions: the “Smarter University”. According to this concept, the new role of universities in modern society consists not only of cooperation with other actors focusing on social, cultural and economic activities but also the wide use of web-based technologies to support traditional teaching and research, as well as engagement and social interaction (Coccoli et al., 2014).

The Smarter University model is the result of technological innovations and, in particular, digital tools that facilitate interconnection, networking and sharing between individuals and groups (Coccoli et al., 2014) and increase the ability of universities to contribute to economic and social development.

The new concept of the university has attracted research attention aimed at finding appropriate models to measure the performance of such institutions. In this paper, we develop a model to measure the contribution of smarter universities to social, economic and cultural development. We adopt an integrated approach that links performance measurement to the smart university’s mission and its new business model.

Keywords: Smart Organizations, Smart Universities, Performance Measurement, Triple Helix, SMART Performance Pyramid.


Cyber Risk. The New Enemy for Risk Management in the Age of Globalisation

The present paper is a theoretical study on the topic of cyber risk and cyber risk management. This research represents the first step of a far deeper analysis on this topic that aims at underlining the main characteristics of cyber risk, delineating future developments in managing it and strengthening the importance of sharing information and creating a shared knowledge between countries.

Good situational awareness and cyber risk analytics are vital in helping firms identify weaknesses, rank threat scenarios, identify countermeasures and set priorities for intelligence gathering. There emerges the need to improve the traditional risk management process, by considering the necessity to manage not only risks, but also uncertainties, by implementing Business Continuity Management systems with the aim to build business resilience.

To do that, one possible solution might be represented by the intervention of governments with laws and frameworks that might help companies fight cyber threats.

Keywords: Cyber Risk Management, Cyber Risk, Business Continuity Management, Theoretical Paper, Globalisation, Resilience


Trends in Italian Accounting and Management Research by topical areas

The research analyzes topics in Accounting and Management studies and their trends over time. Based on hand-collected publication of full professor, associate professor, assistant researchers, doctoral graduates, we first suggest a classification of topics coherent with the one used by mains academic association annual congresses. Next, we find that Management and Financial accounting dominate topics in accounting studies, and that Auditing, Social, Environmental, Integrated reporting, Education and History increase publication over time. We also find that public administration and health care industry dominate topics in management studies, and that public administration topics increases publications over time. We contribute to literature, extending previous studies focused only on specific type of researchers, publication, and topics. Full and Associate professors appear to drive the main topics, both in management (corporate governance – strategies) and accounting studies. Doctoral graduate and Assistant researchers, however, tend to focus their topics of research on articles, with great attention to the ranking of the journal that publishes the study.

 Keywords: Topics, Accounting, Management, Researcher, Publication



Management Control 2/2018 – Special Issue


Evoluzione e prospettive dei sistemi di informazione e di controllo

Daniela Mancini

pag.     5
Sistemi di gestione e controllo e professionalizzazione delle imprese familiari. Uno strumento di accreditamento interparentale?

Gaia Bassani, Cristiana Cattaneo, Francesca Maria Cesaroni, Annalisa Sentuti

»   15
Carenze informative e vulnerabilità delle imprese giovani: il ruolo del business plan

Domenico Nicolò

»   37
Constructing servitization strategies. Accounting information in supporting NPD processes

Antonio Leotta, Carmela Rizza, Daniela Ruggeri

»   53
“Mondo reale-tradizionale” e “mondo digitale”, strategie aziendali e web intelligence: il futuro del controllo e della gestione delle informazioni

Rosita Capurro, Michele Galeotti, Stefano Garzella

»   83
A Roadmap for Performance Measurement in Smarter Universities

Rita Lamboglia, Daniela Mancini, Francesco Paolone



Cyber Risk. The New Enemy for Risk Management in the Age of Globalisation

Chiara Crovini, Giovanni Ossola, Pier Luigi Marchini

» 135
Trends in Italian Accounting and Management Research by topical areas

Stefano Azzali, Luca Fornaciari, Tatiana Mazza

» 157
Mission della rivista e norme redazionali » 183

Quale metodologia di ricerca sulle tematiche di Management Control?

Which research methodology on the Management Control issues?

The aim of the article is to discuss how to strenghthen the process of internationalization of research, but preserving the basic values of Italian accounting thought, also in the methodological side, i.e. maintaining the integrated inductive-deductive method of research.Specific reflections are carried out on the more and more relevant role played by the analytical demonstrations of the research hypotheses, with an experimental approach typical of the “hard” sciences. In particular, the research hypotheses are often based on cause-effect relationships in a true-false logic, with reference to the available data bases or to data collected on a sample basis, often neglecting the accuracy of such a data. Even the language used is more and more the mathematical one, not suitable for the scientific communication in our community, because it neglects the qualitative variables, the interpretation of the data and the understanding of the multiple non-linear cause-effect relationships.With regard to the contents, the relevant issues seem to be no more those related to the understanding of the business complexity, but those that may lent best to the correlation analysis; in fact, the focus is on the quantitative methods, considered a priori better, and this increasingly determines the detachment from the business reality.

Keywords: research methodology, quantitative methods, qualitative methods, data accuracy.


L’eterno divario tra teoria e prassi del pricing nel Management Accounting

The everlasting gap between pricing theory and practice in management accounting.

The reality gap between management accounting conventional wisdom and empirical evidence has attracted a lot of interest in management accounting research. The conventional wisdom, based on the neoclassical economics framework, postulates that product pricing should follow marginal analysis. Empirical evidence shows that full-cost pricing is the dominant form of pricing behaviour. A first strand in the literature tried to address the gap reconciling full-cost pricing and marginal cost pricing retaining the neoclassical framework. A second strand rejected the neoclassical framework and adopted an institutional economics framework. Neither strand provided conclusive evidence to bridge the gap. In this paper we discuss the nature of the reality gap in the light of the rationality assumptions underlying neoclassical and institutional economics. We conclude that further research is needed and that the reality gap can only be bridged by showing how observed practice (full-cost pricing) may produce an optimal outcome, without imposing profit-maximizing goals on the firms.

Keywords: Reality-gap, Full-cost pricing, Management Accounting, marginal analysis.


L’introduzione di un sistema di prezzi di trasferimento. Il caso dell’Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana

The introduction of a transfer pricing system. The case of the Pisana Hospital-University Company

Hospitals are complex organizations in which the provision of the service involves several organizational units, and this causes intense internal exchanges of goods and services. Aim of the paper is the design of a transfer pricing system that can be very important, both for determining the cost of the service, and for promoting organizational behaviors consistent with the production of the service and with the appropriate use of resources. The adopted approach allows to recover the function of cost accounting system as a real support to decision-making processes through the enhancement of the link between cost information and management operations. The system improves the effectiveness in monitoring the processes of allocation and use of resources by which it’s possible to pursue simultaneously the clinical and economic needs. Finally, transfer prices are instruments that favor the integration and coordination between operators that perform technically and logically related activities, with a view to overall performance.

Keywords: Hospitals, transfer princing, cost accounting system, public sector, decision-support processes


L’impatto del contratto di rete nei processi di in-ternazionalizzazione: alcune evidenze empiriche sulle PMI italiane

The impact of network contract in internationalization’s competitive processes. Some evidence on Italian SMEs

In last years, the EU institutions have implemented policies aimed at supporting the internationalization of SMEs. In 2012, Italy has transposed this Community impulses through the introduction into national law of the network contract (NC). The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of NC in competitive processes of business internationalization. The analysis was conducted on a sample of 126 companies belonging to a NC. The empirical results show that such an instrument could represent for Italian SMEs an effective means of support within the work conducted on international markets. The results show the effectiveness of the instrument in fostering the transfer of know how between the companies belonging to the network.

 Keywords: strategic alliances, internationalization, inter firm network, value creation


Crisi delle PMI e strumenti di warning. Un test di verifica nel settore manifatturiero

SME’s crisis and warning tools – A verification test in the manufactoring sector.

Score-based models play an important role for predicting the failure of non-listed SME’s within a few years before bankruptcy, and the the reason of their success is in the fact that they are easy to understand and use easily obtainable data from both balance sheets and statements. This paper ascertains if two of such warning tools, one originally developed for U.S. firms (Z’-Score) while the other one is an adaptation of the latter to the peculiarities of the socio-economic Italian enviroment (BCS), are effectively reliable in measuring the default potential of industrial businesses in Italy. First, we have analyzed the theoretical and practical characteristics of the two models and we highlight some of its potential shortcomings. Second, we have examined a sample of 200 industrial SME’s, of which 100 companies have been subjected in the period 2005-2015 in bankruptcy proceedings because of a default, whereas the remaining 100 companies, which have been selected based on same core business, year of data collection and a comparable size of total assets, did not go bankruptcy. The models were tested by verifying, yesterday for today, whether the future health status of the businesses in the sample, and the impending business failures specifically, could have been predicted up to three years earlier and with reasonable precision using the examined models. We found that the models still work effectively and perform well in predicting failures of Italian SME’s, provided that some critical points illustrated in this study are taken into account.

 Keywords: Z’-Score, Sme, Businesses crises, Financial ratios, Warning tools.


La valutazione del CdA in contesti ad elevata concentrazione proprietaria: mero conformismo o reale strumento di valutazione?

Board evaluation and concentrated ownership structure. Conformism or assessment tool?

Board evaluation is a best practice required on voluntary bases by Code of conduct. Despite its voluntary nature, companies very likely adopted this recommendation because the failure to adopt could have a negatively impact on company legitimation and reputation. Moreover, the implementation modalities of BE, however, could be negatively influenced by the specific companies’ ownership structure. The ownership concentration and the search for corporate legitimacy can lead at two possible situations: the BE have only formally adoption or BE have adoption in form and substance. What prevails in the context of ownership concentrated firms? Companies adopt the recommendation to comply with other companies (mere conformism) or it is a real assessment tool? We analyse the Italian non-financial listed companies, a market typically characterized by the presence of firms with high concentration of ownership, over the year 2011-2013. Our results reveal that, generally, BE is adopted but, in our sample, when ownership structure in concentrated, BE is more likely it is a result of mere conformism. The contribution is, as far as we know, the first to analyze the BE with reference to the context characterized by high concentration of ownership that can influence the quality of recommended best practice.

Keywords: board evaluation, codici di condotta, Italia.

Board evaluation Tab. 1

Board evaluation Tab. 2

Board evaluation Appendice 1


Big Data e revisione contabile: uno studio esplorativo nel contesto italiano

Big Data and external audit. An explorative study in the Italian context

Recent technological developments referred to Big Data (BD) and Data Analytics (DA) may offer significant opportunities in the statutory auditing context. Despite numerous studies dealing with the opportunities and obstacles related to the adoption of such technological advancement in conducting audit engagements, the way in which BD and DA can contribute to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the statutory audit activities is still under investigated.

This paper aims to provide an explorative analysis regarding whether, and if so, how extensive is the use of BD and DA technologies within the Italian auditing context. BY performing semi-structured interviews with the partner and senior managers of eight different audit firms (both Big 4 and not Big 4), the proposed analysis allowed to underline that in the Italian context audit firms have shown a lower degree of advancement compared to that of other countries (mostly US and UK). The peculiar characteristics of the Italian economic environment, specifically related to Italian audited companies, as well as the need for high-specialized skills in applying the mentioned technologies constitute the main obstacles to a full endorsement of BD and DA technology within the daily practices of Italian auditors.

Keywords: revisione contabile, Big Data, Data Analytics, audit innovation.


Strategic performance management systems in Italian banks. A research note

Over the last decades strategic performance management systems (SPMSs) have attracted a considerable interest, however, despite their great popularity and use only a few investigations describe their uses in Italian banks. The aim of this paper is to provide a picture about the practices and contents of SPMSs showing their features and serving as a reference for academics and practitioners. This paper highlights the extent to which SPMSs are quite common in banks and their features resemble to the traditional model developed by Kaplan and Norton for the traditional balanced scorecard (BSC). Italian banks prefer using SPMSs characterized by multi-dimensional perspectives containing both financial and non-financial measures and link incentive systems to targets paying, in same case, attention to strategic relations. Besides, several banks introduce a further perspective devotes to measure exclusively the global risk level of the bank.

Keywords: strategic performance management systems; banks; balanced scorecard; Italy; implementation; perspectives



Management Control 2/2018


Quale metodologia di ricerca sulle tematiche di Management Control?

Luciano Marchi

pag.     5
L’eterno divario tra teoria e prassi del pricing nel Management Accounting

Graziano Coller

»   11
L’introduzione di un sistema di prezzi di trasferimento. Il caso dell’Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana

Luca Del Bene, Antonello De Vito, Carlo Milli, Fabio Guarracino

»   35
L’impatto del contratto di rete nei processi di internazionalizzazione: alcune evidenze empiriche sulle PMI italiane

Andrea Venturelli, Fabio Caputo, Simone Pizzi

»   61
Crisi delle PMI e strumenti di warning. Un test di verifica nel settore manifatturiero

Mauro Paoloni, Massimiliano Celli

»   85
La valutazione del Consiglio di Amministrazione in contesti ad elevata concentrazione proprietaria: mero conformismo o reale strumento di valutazione?

Romilda Mazzotta, Giovanni Bronzetti, Graziella Sicoli, Paolo Tenuta




Big Data e revisione contabile: uno studio esplorativo nel contesto italiano

Federica De Santis

» 129
Strategic Performance Management Systems in Italian banks. A research note

Francesca Francioli

» 155
Mission della rivista e norme redazionali » 179



Commenti all’articolo Senza la riforma della dirigenza addio ai nuovi modelli di leadership nella PA? L’esperienza Inps nel dopo-Madia di Vincenzo Caridi, pubblicato sul numero 4/2016 di Azienda Pubblica


Il caso di leadership assessment & development proposto in INPS da Vincenzo Caridi, già direttore della Formazione e dello Sviluppo dello stesso ente previdenziale, è di grande interesse per tutto il mondo PA, non solo perché riguarda uno dei più grandi enti pubblici del nostro paese, ma anche e soprattutto alla luce dell’animato dibattito sulla riforma della dirigenza dell’anno scorso, seppellito troppo velocemente insieme alla riforma stessa dalla nota sentenza della Consulta (n 251del 2016). Dal punto di vista di chi scrive, il caso INPS mostra almeno due punti di apprendimento e un punto di domanda, spunto di riflessione per esperienze future. […]

International Summer School “Empirical Methods in Market Microstructure Research”

“The Department of Economics of the University of Molise, in collaboration with ECMCRC (European Capital Markets Cooperative Research Centre) and CMCRC (Capital Markets Cooperative Research Centre), is organizing an International Summer School on “Empirical Methods in Market Microstructure Research”.

The Summer School will take place from 9 to 13 July, 2018, and it is hosted in the stunning medieval town of Agnone, located in the north side of Molise.

Entirely taught in English, the programme addresses graduate and postgraduate students in
Economics with background knowledge in introductory finance and basic statistics.
The programme deals with empirical market microstructure research; it aims at investigating the impact of regulation or market structure on the quality and efficiency of markets, through a combination of introductory classes on how empirical research and “hands on” practical work in computer laboratory sessions.

This course is designed to provide students with an understanding of (1) approaches
to empirical tests in market microstructure research, (2) Thompson Reuters Tick History
(TRTH) data and how it can be used to conduct empirical tests, and (3) the SAS language and how it can be used to analyse large datasets (Big Data) comprised of billions of observations.

Who should apply?

The EMMMR Summer School is targeted to those who would like to supplement their current studies and research in the field of financial markets. The EMMMR Summer School, taught entirely in English, is intended for PhD students, recent graduates and assistant researchers in all subjects related to the Summer School topics.

Summer School prize
Capital Market Cooperative Research Centre, an Australian leading research and development organisation based in Sydney, will offer the best performing student a grant of up to 5.000 AUD for reimbursement of costs to spend 3 weeks visiting its headquarter in Sydney to work on a specific research project. The student, depending on his/her performance, will be offered the possibility to join one of the CMCRC PhD programs. The PhD program has a duration of 3 years, to be spent mainly in Sydney, and the student, if successful, will benefit of annual scholarship of AUD 50,000.

Scientific Committee
Francesco Capalbo, Professor of Accounting, University of Molise, Italy
Alex Frino, Deputy Vice-Chancellor & Professor of Finance, University of Wollongong, Australia
Claudio Lupi, Professor of Economic Statistics, University of Molise, Italy
Alberto F. Pozzolo, Professor od Economics, University of Molise, Italy
Riccardo Palumbo, Professor of Accounting and Behavioural Finance, University “G. D’Annunzio”, Italy

Prof. Alex Frino (University of Wollongong)
Prof. Claudio Lupi (University of Molise)
Prof. Alberto F. Pozzolo (University of Molise)
Dr. Ivy Zhou (University of Wollongong)

The participation fee to the Summer School is 200€. This fee includes all teaching, social activities, some meals and transfer from and to Isernia on shuttle bus. Admitted applicants who accept the place shall agree to pay the programme fees in full within 15 days of notification of acceptance. Failure to do so, will result in the applicant’s cancellation.

Full details available at http://dipeconomia.unimol.it/EMMMR

Contact: EMMMR@unimol.it

Per il comitato Scientifico
Francesco Capalbo”


EMMMR summerschool 2018


Le sfide evolutive del Management Control tra relazioni strategiche, innovazione e discontinuità: a knowledge transfer matter?

The evolutionary challenges of management control between strategic relationship, institutional innovation and discontinuity: a knowledge transfer matter?

Management control studies provide a relevant body of knowledge able to support any organization in the strategy formulation, information processing and performance measurement. The suggested frameworks and tools are now proposed and implemented in a wide range of organizational contexts to face the increasing environmental discontinuity, characterized by the growing importance of strategic relationships and institutional innovations. In this scenario, the selected papers discuss some theoretical proposals and cases of implementation that could be interpreted in the knowledge transfer perspective, stimulating an analytical approach able to foster the role of management control in supporting economic and social development.

Keywords: management control, strategic relationships, innovation, performance measurement, knowledge transfer.